Health inequalities among British civil servants: They theorized that adverse effects could be a function of cognitive biases associated with high anxiety and depression inherent in participants.
That the risk of inducing short-term distress should caution against a rush to utilise written emotional expression as a self-help therapeutic tool. Thus future studies should focus more closely on the processes that occur during e. Social Science and Medicine, 26, Until we have a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the health effects of expressive writing, it will be difficult to maximize the potential health benefits to clinical populations Gidron, et al.
Linking inhibitory and psychosomatic processes. The risks of writing on emotions. Toward an understanding of inhibition and disease. However, duration of writing has been found to be unrelated to outcomes Smyth, Cognitive processing of traumas: Emotional repression, stress disclosure responses, and Epstein-Barr capsid antigen titers.
Changes in cognitive coping strategies predict EBV-antibody titre change following a stressor disclosure induction. Effects of previous disclosure and trauma severity. This may suggest that the disclosures were less traumatic or distressing than those of previous studies, although most of our other data does not support this conclusion.
Disclosure of traumas and psychosomatic processes.
The Whitehall II study. Finally, participants in the emotive group reported less anxiety and insomnia and enhanced positive mood at thirty weeks relative to the other groups.
Since we found little evidence of changes in potential psychological mediators, it is apparent that we need a better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie long-term health outcomes of disclosure.
Although there were no apparent shifts in negative mood, the finding that positive mood was significantly affected points to some level of distress being induced by the writing procedure, a common finding within written disclosure studies Smyth, Cognition and Emotion, 10, However, the different patterning of effects we observed from the initial questionnaires suggest that the differences we observed at three-week follow-up were not due to the poor health of the emotive writing group.
Behavioral Research Therapy, 31, Unlike past studies, the present writing intervention took place at home rather than in the laboratory, and so, we had little control over the choice of topic, recency of trauma or length of writing period. They found that patients reported significant increases in visits to health services and intrusive symptoms five weeks after written emotional expression compared to matched controls.
In spite of these weaknesses, it is clear from our study that future studies should take into consideration the potential short-term detrimental effects of written-disclosure, particularly when administering writing outside the controlled dosage designs of laboratory studies.
This was done particularly in view of the fact that the emotive writing group reported different levels of these measures at these times compared to the other two groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, It has also been proposed that short-term distress may be a necessary factor in the path to long-term recovery Pennebaker, Thus, the patterning of data may be a result of design features, which have previously been found to influence the efficacy of disclosure.
The independent judges rated the essays written by participants in the emotive writing group as more emotional and more personal compared to those of the unemotive writing group. The structure of mood change:In an effort to understand emotional change, brief psychotherapy was compared with written expression about stressful life events as well as.
Expression of Feelings About Traumatic Experiences In comparing psychotherapy and written expression two important factors are necessarily confounded. First, psychotherapy involves an inter- personal interaction.
tions of emotional expression and evidence of positive changes towards. written expression of feeling about traumatic events. The painfulness of the results suggest that previous findings that psychotherapy ameliorated this negative mood upsurge could not be attributed to the vocal character of Instead, emotional expression may facilitate cog.
The purpose of this study was to compare vocal and written expression of feeling about interpersonal traumatic and trivial events in min sessions over a 4-day period. Similar emotional processing was produced by vocal and written expression of feeling about traumatic events.
The painfulness of. Written emotional expression was associated with short-term detrimental physical health effects and less substantial long-term psychological health benefits, cautioning against the adoption of written emotional expression alone in the home environment. affective arousal and linguistic output in a computer vs.
content of the emotional essays and reported that there were virtually no differences in terms of psychotherapy and written expression about a stressful or .Download