It is not necessarily suggested that deficiencies in cognitive capabilities cause crime, but rather that certain ways of processing social information and certain social cognitive memory structures help to protect the individual from personal, social, environmental, or situational pressures towards criminal behavior.
On the other hand, adolescent-onset delinquents did not encounter similar childhood problems. More research is needed on how well gender differences in crime and violence can be explained by gender differences in social cognition.
They argue that this shows that gender-role norms play a large part in the differences in aggressive behavior between men and women. Childhood-onset delinquency is attributed to lack of parenting, neurocognitive problems, and temperament and behavior problems.
Social information-processing skills allow individuals to encode information, interpret and consider risks and benefits of a particular action, and determine an appropriate response based on their repertoire of behavioral scripts.
Eagly and Steffen suggested in their meta-analysis of data on sex and aggression that beliefs about the negative consequences of violating gender expectations affect how both genders behave regarding aggression. Other studies that decontextualized partner violence included labeling aggregate findings of motivations for violence that included the desire to coerce or control the partner or being angry with the partner as "striking back" when such questions revealed that women scored equal to or higher than men in desires to use violence out of simple anger or to coerce and control the partner.
Greater caring for children also leads to difficulty leaving them in order to either fight or flee. Another large study reveals that women are between two and three times as likely to be the offender in non-reciprocal partner violence.
One of the reasons females have lower rates of offending is because they acquire social cognitive skills earlier in life than males do and because they have better prosocial skills.
This study showed a male-to-female ratio of Onset[ edit ] Terrie Moffitt and Avshalom Caspi  compare childhood risk factors of males and females portraying childhood-onset and adolescent-onset antisocial behavior, which influences deviant behavior in individuals.
Previous article in issue. Males can increase their reproductive success by polygyny which will lead the competition with other males over females. Gender differences in the development of social cognition may help to explain gender differences in crime and violence.
Many other researchers have agreed with this and have stated that criminal behavior is an expression of inter-male competition in mating efforts and resource seeking since there is a huge correlation between criminals and fathering children at younger ages.
By doing so, individuals with masculinized brains as a result of pre-natal and adult life testosterone and androgens enhance their resource acquiring abilities in order to survive, attract and copulate with mates as much as possible.
Studies by Bettencourt and Miller show that when provocation is controlled for, sex differences in aggression are greatly reduced. Based on research, girls are less likely than boys to have nervous system dysfunctions, difficult temperament, late maturity in verbal and motor development, learning disabilities, and childhood behavioral problems.
The study suggests that while women are far more prone to be the sole offender, reciprocal violence where both partners use violence has higher frequency of serious injuries, and that these injuries more often have female victims than male. Sociobiology and Sociobiological theories of rape Evolutionary psychology has proposed several evolutionary explanations for gender differences in aggressiveness.
If the mother died, this may have had more serious consequences for a child than if the father died in the ancestral environment since there is a tendency for greater parental investments and caring for children by females than by males[ citation needed ].
The superior social cognitive skills of females are influenced by many factors, including better interhemispheric communication, fewer frontal lobe deficits, greater verbal ability, and differential socialization by parents and peers.
Anne Campbell writes that females may thus avoid direct physical aggressiveness and instead use strategies such as "friendship termination, gossiping, ostracism, and stigmatization".- This essay discusses Sutherland’s concept of white collar crime in the light of whether it is still appropriate in the 21st century.
It is worth noting that white collar crime is often perceived as a less serious crime in the society. - The object of this paper is to explain gender differences in particular types of crime.
I intend to. Explaining gender differences in crime and violence: The importance of social cognitive skills. who have a developmentally faster physical and cognitive maturation rate, may be able to interpret gender-specific cues and model gender-appropriate behavior earlier than. - Introduction Boys and girl approach life differently and therefore it can be argued that major gender differences exists, however scientific studies have prove that this difference occur mainly due to different rate of biological development, understanding this will help overcome negative impact brought about by perceived gender differences.
Disclaimer: This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. Keywords: gender and crime, gender criminology theory.
The biological perspective on gender differences in crime rate points out that genetics determines the criminal behavior of a person. Neurochemicals.
Sociological Explanations of Gender Differences in Crime Rates. So to successfully assess why there are gender differences in crime rates we must first find out why sociology ignores female offenders. Frances Heidensohn in suggested four reasons why sociology is, malestream, dominated by men.
Observational studies have also. Outline and assess sociological explanations for gender differences in patterns of crime. functionalists argue that gender differences in patterns of crime are due to the 'control theory'. For example, women are controlled and more likely to be at home, they are not in the pubs or clubs getting drunk which makes them hardly exposed to.Download